It is found that over 2000 years ago during the times of Roman Empire, slag was used in building roads. The authorized beneficial uses under this general permit are limited to use as an agricultural liming agent, as an ingredient in specialty fertilizers and an ingredient in mine grouting material. US produces over 16 million tons of steel slag in 2018, and recycled over 60% of that steel slag as road base (Ilyushechkin et al., 2012; National Minerals Information Center, 2019). Now, technicians at our Kryvyi Rih site in Ukraine have been exploring new ways to sell slag as a fertiliser or soil improver. India: The Ministry of Steel has asked that the Ministry of Agriculture examine using slag from steel and iron production as a fertilizer. Slag processing GGBS; How Is Slag Used? Another liming material is basic slag, a by-product of steel manufacture; its active ingredient is calcium silicate. RESEARCH ON THE USE OF SLAG FROM THE STEEL INDUSTRY IN AGRICULTURE AND FOR AMELIORATION ACIDIC SOILS Valentina Mihaela, PETCU (VASILE)1, M. MIHALACHE² University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest, Faculty of Agriculture Corresponding author: [email protected] Abstract. Traditionally it has been used mainly as an aggregate but for some types there are other applications, such as a raw material for cement or as a fertiliser. Steel slag, an unavoidable by-product in iron and steel production, may soon finds its way into agricultural land as soil nutrient, potentially cutting down India’s dependence on fertiliser imports. Patents Introduction Steel slag is a mixture of metal oxides and silicon dioxide and may contain metal sulphide along with metal in the ele-mental form. Now, technicians at our Kryvyi Rih site in Ukraine have been exploring new ways to sell slag as a fertiliser or soil improver. Slags from the Iron and Steel Industry. It might seem counter-intuitive, but steel slag has exactly the right chemical composition to do this. The materials are used to maximise yields of cultivated crops and pasture, improve soil texture and neutralize high soil acidity. KEY WORDS: slag, recycling, agriculture, pollution, industry 1. Out of India’s 142 million hectare of arrable land, 49 million hectare is covered by acid soils. The properties of slag greatly influence its use and thus had got varied applications. As a major by-product of our industry, slag has long been sold by steelmakers for use in construction, but its use in agriculture has been less well known. 2.2 Fertilizers made from blast furnace slag and steelmaking slag Iron and steel slag can largely be divided into blast furnace slag and steelmaking slag. The quantities of slag obtained world wide are increasing, … Through an in-depth study on steel slag, it is apparent that it has been widely used in various fields in recent years. Steel slag is a large amount of residual material produced in the process of steel manufacturing. 3. Possible Uses of Steelmaking Slag in Agriculture: An Overview Fertile thinking: farmers benefiting from steel slag. Sustainable plan for steel slag in Canada ; Agricultural liming standard certification ; Risk assessment from US steel slag coalition ; Properties and sustainable uses of SS in US ; Phosphorus removal ; Conclusion ; 3 Environmental Authority in Quebec, Canada. Slag has been used in agriculture for some time, notably in the USA, Germany, and France, and it has proved both effective and cost-efficient. Iron blast-furnace slag should not be confused with steel-furnace slag or other types of slag. Currently, Indonesia produces annually about 540,000 ton of electric furnace (EF) – one kind of steel slag; however none of this is being used in agriculture. In the conventional application of the steelmaking slag in civil engineering, the elution of free-lime (CaO) from slag and the expansion of slag caused by hydration have been the major problems, which are yet to be solved. agricultural technology: Liming. Slag generated from basic oxygen furnace (BOF) or Linz-Donawitz (LD) converter is one of the recyclable wastes in integrated steel plants. to Nippon Slag Association’s statistics on the use of slag in 2012, the total consumption of blast furnace and steelmaking slags for fer-tilizer and soil amendment was 260 000 tons. The government is particularly interested in using slag in areas with acidic soils, mostly in the eastern part of the country where productivity is lower, according to the Financial Express newspaper. The best management option for this byproduct is by recycling. With the requirements of sustainable development in China, the utilization of steel slag has become a hot issue. Since 1880, steel slag was used as phosphate fertilizer because of the amount of high phosphorus ore in western Europe (Motz and Geiseler, 2001). Full details of the specific properties and applications for each of the types of slag can be found on the pages as follows: Air-cooled Blast Furnace Slag (ABS) Air-cooled Basic Oxygen Steel Slag (BOS) The main uses of Slag are in construction, water treatment, agriculture, cementitious applications. The steel ministry has requested the agriculture ministry to look into the scope of using these slags particularly in areas, mostly in the eastern part of the country, having acidic soils, where productivity is lower. Piles of steel slag, a solid waste generated from the iron and steel industry, could be seen due to no utility found for the past century. 4/2011 Page 2 of 8 A. It might seem counter-intuitive, but steel slag has exactly the right chemical composition to do this. Physical and chemical characterization of steel slag is a deciding factor of steel slag utilization depending on the properties it can be used as road aggregate, cement and concrete admixture, soil stabilizer, construction materials, etc. Depending on the stage or type of steel making process, the slag generated is called High Sulphur slag, LD slag (Steel Furnace slag – SFS), LF slag or Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) slag. Blast furnace slag is a by-product of the iron and steel industry. Steel making slag (also: steel slag) is produced during the conversion of hot metal to crude steel in a basic oxygen furnace or during the melting of scrap in an electric arc furnace. Hawai steel slag has been utilized in agriculture as a liming material for improving acid soil or as Si source for paddy rice and sugar cane plants. • Farmers use Ag-Slag for maximum yields of cultivated crops and pasture. This steel can be recycled. Concrete. In agriculture, slag aggregates (Ag-Slag) have been used as an agricultural liming material since the 1920's in all types of crop production and landscaping. The slag from Split landfill in total quantity of 30.000 tons has not found its application till now. In Europe, USA, Japan, China, Korea, and Hawai steel slag has been utilized in agriculture as a liming material for improving acid soil or as Si source for paddy rice and sugar cane plants. In industrial countries, the use of steel slag in agriculture is mature (Wang and Qing, 2006). Disposal of different wastes produced from different Industries is a great problem for any country. The chemical composition and physical properties of … The physical and chemical characteristics of steel slag are summarized, and the pretreatment progress of steel slag in steel industries as recycled raw material was introduced. Europe and Japan creatively use a small amount of steel slag for agricultural and environmental improvement (Guo et al., 2018). Steel LD slag has been successfully used as a substitute for limestone to neutralize soil acidity in agricultural soils for many years, and research has shown slag use to be comparable to or superior to limestone in some cases. Steel slag is by-product formed in the process of steel manufacturing. Especially in densely populated Branca, E. Bonari and V. Colla Publisher: Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture Marl and chalk are soft, impure forms of limestone and are sometimes used as liming materials, as are oyster shells. This research was carried out during the academic year 2008 with the aim of studying the effect of Steel Slag on Agricultural Topsoil. High price of slag disposal imposes the need for finding new fields of its utilisation. Background With world steel production now well over a billion tonnes per year, the slag that arises from some of the processes involved is a major resource. new uses of slag as well as find more sophisticated applications. BENEFICIAL USE OF STAINLESS STEEL SLAG Rev. The Use of Ag-Slag is Time-Proven Ag-Slag has proven its value as an agricultural liming material since the 1920's in all types of crop production and landscaping. Agriculture occupies a prominent position in Indian policy-making not only because of its contribution to GDP but also because of the large proportion of the population that depends on this sector for its livelihood. Slag-based silicate fertilizer has been widely used to improve soil silicon- availability and crop productivity. Steel slag has now gained much attention because of its new applications. These materials pose environmental pollution in the nearby locality because many of them are nonbiodegradable. struction (as a stabilisation layer) and in agriculture (fine fractions are used for soil improvement). If the crude steel undergoes further secondary steelmaking processes, different kinds of secondary metallurgical slags are formed. In Ukraine, we have been researching its value to farmers to improve soil properties and crop yield. Steel slag and in particular LD and EAF Slag are being used extensively for various applications in many countries across the world including in USA, the European Union, Brazil, Australia and China. Slag is the glass-like by-product left over after a desired metal has been separated (i.e., smelted) from its raw ore.Slag is usually a mixture of metal oxides and silicon dioxide.However, slags can contain metal sulfides and elemental metals. A consecutive early rice-late rice rotation experiment was conducted to test the impacts of steel slag on soil pH, silicon availability, rice growth and metals-immobilization in paddy soil. The use in other sectors of the steel shop slag leads to release the surfaces occupied by these wastes and to render them to the respective natural landscape, there takes place a reduction of the pollution degree in the regions having steel industry. When pig iron is smelted in a blast furnace, the flux is added to the raw materials from the blast furnace in addition to iron ore and fuel (coke). Usage in sinter mix-Steelmaking slag contains high percentage of CaO (mostly above 50 %). Properties of SSA . engaging important agricultural land and causing grave pollution to the environment. Use of BOF steel slag in agriculture: column test evaluation of effects on alkaline soils and drainage water By C. Pistocchi, G. Ragaglini, T.A. 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