What Is Brain Plasticity? There are two kinds of plasticity: experience-expectant and experience-dependent. Developmental plasticity occurs when such experiences, during critical periods of maturation, result in long-term alterations in the structure or function of the respiratory control neural network. Behavioral plasticity refers to a change in an organism's behavior that results from exposure to stimuli, such as changing environmental conditions. Of all the questions addressed in the field of psychology perhaps the most important relate to the issue of human plasticity, or in other words, the human capacity to change. In experience-expectant plasticity, external inputs during critical developmental windows guide normal development … Plasticity peaks in childhood, a time when our brains are primed to change in response to experiences. The human brain is composed of approximately 86 billion neurons. Adaptations and adaptability. Humans have biological plasticity, or an ability to adapt biologically to our environment.An adaptation is any variation that can increase one’s biological fitness in a specific environment; more simply it is the successful interaction of a population with its environment.Adaptations may be biological or cultural in nature. way of studying human cognitive plasticity. Behavior can change more rapidly in response to changes in internal or external stimuli than is the case for most morphological traits and many physiological traits. New research has given a renewed, positive view of the human brain and its potential for change and development throughout life. Developmental Plasticity: Behavioral and Biological Aspects of Variations in Development explores the behavioral and biological aspects of variations in development from a variety of theoretical viewpoints and research contexts. Similar developmental differences can be observed in gene expression studies, with delayed peak activity of genes involved in synaptogenesis and neuronal plasticity in humans compared to chimpanzees and macaques (Liu et al., 2012). Topics covered include evolution and genetic variability; sensory bases of infant perception; and learning and ethology. Neuroplasticity is the brain’s capacity to continue growing and evolving in response to life experiences. The importance of developmental plasticity for human health was highlighted by the work of David Barker who suggested that fetal adaptations to environmental cues might be the root cause of many chronic degenerative diseases (Barker, 1998). Its roots trace to the classic “nature versus nurture” debate introduced in the nineteenth century in scientific discourse, that is, the question of the origins of individual differences as a result of environmental versus genetic influences. 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